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Hydrogen air space violated

28 May 2017 - Chemistry book of world records

shortHH distance Grimme 2017.PNGWith thanks to Mevans86@twitter for the alert, a group of European researchers have discovered something unusual in tri(3,5-tert-butylphenyl)-methane, ordinarily a truly unremarkable compound. They write about it in JACS ( Rösel et al. DOI) The unusual property was uncovered when crystals of the compounds were subjected to XRD at cryogenic temperatures. It turns out that in the crystal structure dimers are formed with the two hydrogen atoms at the central carbon atom pointing towards each other and this with an extremely short hydrogen to hydrogen (-H~H-) distance, at 20K just 1.566 angstrom. A record in the chemistry book of world records and the hydrogen Van der Waals radius is just 1.2 A.

The hydrogen atoms are clearly violating each others air space. Other compounds exist with such small contact distances but these tend to have the hydrogen atoms sterically confined in a cavity. The solution to this riddle according to the authors is in so-called dispersion energy donors (DED). London dispersion forces are small but attractive forces between atoms and in the compound in question due to the many tert-butyl groups there are 33 attractive interactions offsetting the one repulsive HH interaction.

Diesel dehydrogenation

24 May 2017 - Catalysis

diesel dehydrogenation Jie 2017.PNGA novel take on dehydrogenation: from alkanes (oil, more specifically diesel) to hydrogen fuel with elemental carbon as the only side-product. Compare that to the current proven technology steam reforming that goes from methane and water to hydrogen and not carbon but carbon monoxide. Xiangyu Jie et al. explain it in a recent Angewandte article (DOI). They ran hexadecane (a typical diesel constituent) for 30 minutes through a microwave containing a iron-nickel silicon carbide (Fe-Ni/SiC) catalyst at 5.5% loading and measured 97% hydrogen conversion. The catalyst can survive 5 cycles of fresh alkane addition. The presence of nickel in the catalyst disperses the metal on the SiC surface and prevents the formation of iron carbide. In this process microwaves beat thermal heating which suffers from liquid evaporation.
Diesel engines are controversial because they pollute the environment, their phasing-out would eventually leave the oil industry with a big pile of petrofuel, a particular fractional distillate with no other known uses. Clever dehydrogenation would make this pile go away again.